18 December 2014

Success = Competence + Luck

It is a frightening equation, really, because all your success is a function of your competence, which you control, and your luck, which you don't control. That we have accepted this equation as a good model of reality expresses itself in our attributions: When we succeed we attribute the outcome to our competence; when we fail we attribute it to bad luck. Most of us do.

In a perfect world, in a perfect meritocracy, everyone would get what they deserve and luck could be ignored. You work your way up the competence axis and reap the rewards on the success axis.

Image: Michael Baumann, 2014.

(Competence is of course a continuous variable. However, in the workplace it is treated discretely: Educational attainment, as a proxy for competence, is reflected in discrete salary scales; experience is reflected in discrete salary steps.)

In the real world, of course, you also need luck. Luck to be born in the right place at the right time. Luck to be physically and mentally healthy. Luck to have parents who care enough but not too much. Luck to receive a good education, to meet the right soul mate, to be in the right place at the right time.

Luck can be represented as the frequency distribution of successes at any given competence level.

Image: Michael Baumann, 2014.

We neither know what these distributions look like nor how wide they spread around the mean, i.e. the shape and magnitude of the luck component. We also don't know whether these distributions look the same for every competence level. But we do know that they overlap; we have all seen good people in bad positions, and bad people in good ones.

So what to take away from this?

  1. For most of us the labour market will decide our career path. That's the way it is, and ever was, and ever will be.
  2. The labour market is imperfect; a problem that may have a considerable cost to the economy.
  3. If you are in a position that undervalues your competence, keep moving within your competence level and regression to the mean will take care of you. (And don't make the mistake to assume that increasing your competence level will automatically put you in a better success position; we usually don't hire Ph.D.s into clerical positions.)
  4. If you are in a position that overvalues your competence, stay put or regression to the mean will take care of you, as it should.

Of course, there is the problem that we usually overestimate our own competence and underestimate that of everybody else. But that is another issue.


11 December 2014

The Dark Side of Volunteering

Image: Michael Baumann (2014)

I am disappointed in young people today, not in their sense of entitlement, which is a problem across generations, but in their utter lack of rebellion. And it is a mystery, really, for much of what they will inherit is badly damaged -- economy, environment, financial system, and so on.

It is therefore ironic when you, the young person, are asked to volunteer your time to contribute to your regional and global community.

My recommendation: Volunteer if you must, but know the caveats.

1: What is your motivation for volunteering? The spirit of volunteering is that the reward be internal, never external. If volunteering carries a utility (e.g. that your are more likely to get a job), the spirit of volunteering is lost.

2: Is volunteering an activity that carries social justice? Not everybody can afford to volunteer; most people must earn a living and take responsibility for their families. Are you thinking critically? Or have you been indoctrinated by the belief that volunteering is good? And if it is good, cui bono?

3: Is volunteering good for the labour market? Volunteering may take away somebody else's legitimate livelihood. Maybe even your own. Maybe not now, but maybe in the future.

4: Is volunteering shifting societal responsibilities? Volunteering may remove pressure from organizations (e.g. the government, insurance companies) to provide the services for which they are ostensibly collecting money (e.g. taxes, premiums).

5: Is the word "volunteering" newspeak? If volunteering has become a requirement, we can speak of volunteering no longer. We should at least be honest.

As always, think of the costs and benefits, the distribution of the costs and benefits, and the consequences of your actions before you act. Nothing is simple.


04 December 2014

Job Applicants with Disabilities

DATE: Thursday, 4 Dec 2014 Image: The Accessible Icon was created by Sara Hendren and Brian Glenney.

I cannot imagine what it means not being able to see, to hear, to walk, what it means to have chronic pain, have difficulties learning, or suffer from severe depression. A disability certainly doesn't make it easier to find a good job.

If you are a disabled job applicant, what should you keep in mind?

1: Employers hire people because they want to solve a problem, not create a new one. Just as any other applicant you must demonstrate at all steps in the application process that you are the right person for the job.

2: I am often asked if as a disabled applicant you should disclose your disability in the application process. Opinions vary, but my answer is this: Yes, address your disability in your cover letter and discuss how with reasonable accommodation your disability will have no or little effect on your job performance. (The purpose of resume and cover letter is to get you the interview. The purpose of the interview is to get you the job.)

3: Once you are invited to an interview the employer has determined that you can do the job in principle. All that remains is to see whether they like you. The interview is thus the place to demonstrate that your disability does not interfere with your everyday job function.

4: You can never exclude the possibility of discrimination; prejudice and discrimination are facts of life, and for all of us. But don't make the mistake to take repeated rejections as evidence of discrimination against you as a disabled person. By far more applicants are being rejected than are being hired. It's tough out there.


Statistics Canada (2014), Study: Persons with disabilities and employment http://www.statcan.gc.ca/daily-quotidien/141203/dq141203a-eng.htm?cmp=mstatcan (Accessed: 3 Dec 2014)